In 1st stage , surface and centre are cooled rapidly to result in temperature gradient. This can make the metal more suitable for its intended use and easier to machine. This produces steel with superior impact resistance. Depending on the temperature and the amount of time, this allows either pure bainite to form, or holds-off forming the martensite until much of the internal stresses relax. higher is the Ms temperature of the steel, the specific volume changes are smaller, and thus, there is reduced danger of quench cracking. Certain amount of cementite remains in the structure of the steel heated to this temperature,in addition to the austenite. Water and aqueous solution are most frequently used as quenching media in hardened carbon and certain low alloy steels with a high critical cooling rate . Therefore , this cementite which was not dissolved in heating ,is retained in the structure of the hardened steel in addition to martensite. This leads to slight increase in stress levels . Ferrite zone lowers the mechanical properties of steel not only after hardening but after tempering as well . The various colors, their corresponding temperatures, and some of their uses are: Beyond the grey-blue color, the iron oxide loses its transparency, and the temperature can no longer be judged in this way. Depending on the carbon content, it also contains a certain amount of "retained austenite." The disadvantage of this method, however, is that the cooling rate in the martensitic transformation range will be very high. The quenched-steel, being placed in or very near its hardest possible state, is then tempered to incrementally decrease the hardness to a point more suitable for the desired application. Heat is extracted in three distinct stages of varying intensity , when water ,oil, salt baths or other liquids are used for quenching . To harden, the steel has to be heated to what is called austnetizing temperature. The heating rate is usually reduced ,not by reducing the furnace temperature but by preheating the article . The main purpose for alloying most elements with steel is to increase its hardenability and to decrease softening under temperature. Acicular troostite ( bainite) is formed as a result of austempering of carbon steel in which austenite decomposition is fully completed in the intermediate zone . Two-step embrittlement typically occurs by aging the metal within a critical temperature range, or by slowly cooling it through that range, For carbon steel, this is typically between 370 °C (698 °F) and 560 °C (1,040 °F), although impurities like phosphorus and sulfur increase the effect dramatically. Structural integrity: The ability to withstand a maximum-rated load while resisting fracture, resisting fatigue, and producing a minimal amount of flexing or deflection, to provide a maximum service life. When an austenitised cylindrical steel piece is quenched, the steel contracts thermally till Ms temperature is reached. In the first stage, carbon precipitates into ?-carbon (Fe24C). In fact, ferrite forms the easy path to fracture. The measured hardness values may also be plotted against the distance to obtain a hardenability curve. The final result is that compressive stresses increase considerably at the surface, while the centre is under tensile stresses. 3 4. This means it hardens rapidly compared to other tool steels, making heat treatment potentially difficult. On the other hand it will have to be ‘tempered’. A water and air mixture ( moistened air) applied at a pressure of 3 atm. Likewise, tempering high-carbon steel to a certain temperature will produce steel that is considerably harder than low-carbon steel that is tempered at the same temperature. Due to its relatively high boiling point ( 250- 300֯ C) the cooling rate in the martensitic range for steel quenched in oil is comparatively low. However, in martempering, the goal is to create martensite rather than bainite. Austenitic stainless steel has austenite as the primary microstructure. Tempered structures have high toughness and ductility, the value of which in the hardened state is nearly zero. : precipitation of intermetallic phases from a supersaturated alloy) the desired results, (i.e. Hypereutectoid steels are heated in hardening to a temperature of Ac 1 + (20-40 C). The soaking time depends mainly on the composition of the steel and its original structure. Steel with a high carbon-content will reach a much harder state than steel with a low carbon-content. Avoid irregular watering during the pit hardening stage. At 600 °C (1,112 °F), the steel may experience another stage of embrittlement, called "temper embrittlement" (TE), which occurs if the steel is held within the temperature range of temper embrittlement for too long. This is explained by the reduction in the amount of retained austenite and because cementite is harder than martensite . Steel can be softened to a very malleable state through annealing, or it can be hardened to a state nearly as rigid and brittle as glass by quenching. Cast-iron comes in many types, depending on the carbon-content. Fully hardened article will have the same properties throughout their cross section. This causes a phenomenon called thin-film interference, which produces colors on the surface. In this case the structure of the core will consist of troostite ,sorbite or pearlite. A considerable part of the cementite is retained . Tempering is usually performed after quenching, which is rapid cooling of the metal to put it in its hardest state. Depending on the holding-temperature, austempering can produce either upper or lower bainite. The closer the temperature of the steel becomes to the present temperature (of furnace), the smaller is this temperature difference, i.e., in actual practice, it can be assumed that when the surface has reached the temperature of the furnace, the steel is heated right through. At the moment of immersion at the molten caustic alkali, the film breaks off or dissolves and bares the metal surface. For instance, molybdenum steels will typically reach their highest hardness around 315 °C (599 °F) whereas vanadium steels will harden fully when tempered to around 371 °C (700 °F). During initial heating-up stage, the surface of the steel is at a higher temperature than the centre. Now it’s time to heat the area covered in paste. There are two major types of hardening processes; surface hardening and case hardening. This hardening method is applied for chisels sledge hammers, hand hammers, centre punches and other tools that require a high surface hardness in conjunction with a tough core. 3. The oxidation rate increases with an increase in heating temperature . expansion occurs of the surface layers. Embrittlement occurs during tempering when, through a specific temperature range, the steel experiences an increase in hardness and a reduction in ductility, as opposed to the normal decrease in hardness that occurs to either side of this range. Overheating steel above its critical point will cause considerable austenite grain growth and coarse acicular martensite will be obtained after quenching . If austenitising temperature is kept slightly above Ac1 (as in pearlitic class), says 850°C, and then quenched, steel has a hardness of 45 Rc, that is characteristic of martensite having 0.22% carbon in it. Small items of any structural steel may be heated at the highest rate permissible by the furnace. The heating time for high alloy structural and tool steels should be 50 to 100 per cent higher . This technique was more often found in Europe, as opposed to the differential hardening techniques more common in Asia, such as in Japanese swordsmithing. These steels are mostly alloy tool steels such as, high speed steel having Fe-0.75% C, 18% W, 4% Cr, 1% V. Such a steel, bases its high red hardness on secondary hardness in which the magnitude of increased hardness depends on the fine and uniform dispersion of as much of alloy carbides as possible to block the motion of dislocations. Minimum temperature for hardening steel parts 550 degrees. At 600 °C (1,112 °F), the steel may experience another stage of embrittlement, called "temper embrittlement" (TE), which occurs if the steel is held within the TE temperature range for too long. The moment when quenching must be interrupted maybe established by experiment. Elasticity: Also called flexibility, this is the ability to deform, bend, compress, or stretch and return to the original shape once the external stress is removed. Localized tempering is often used on welds when the construction is too large, intricate, or otherwise too inconvenient to heat the entire object evenly. The increased brittleness makes the steel to have low impact strength even after tempering, and more prone to quench-warping and cracking. Therefore, austenite in Carbon steel can be cooled through the zone from 600-500 degree Centigrade without decomposition, only in thin articles (upto 5-8mm in thickness). Instead, the decomposing carbon turns into a type of graphite called "temper graphite" or "flaky graphite," increasing the malleability of the metal. Steel in a tempering oven, held at 205 °C (401 °F) for a long time, will begin to turn brown, purple or blue, even though the temperature did not exceed that needed to produce a light-straw color. The heating rate and heating time for hardening depends upon the composition of steel, its structure, residual stresses , the form and size of the part to be hardened . After 2nd stage , brittle and hard martensite in surface thermally contracts, while centre is still contracting. Austenite has much higher stacking-fault energy than martensite or pearlite, lowering the wear resistance and increasing the chances of galling, although some or most of the retained austenite can be transformed into martensite by cold and cryogenic treatments prior to tempering. Contact: 01937 584440 Such a structure ensures very high strength in conjunction with sufficient toughness. the hardness shall be low. From Fig-1 we can observe that hypoeutectoid steels containing pearlite and excess ferrite are hardened by heating to a temperature 20-40֯ C above point Ac3 . The vapour blanket is broken up to some extent by scale and salt spalling off the metal . In case a controlled atmosphere is not available , the articles to be heated are packed in boxes with used carburizing agent , in cast iron chips or various types coatings are applied to the surfaces. However, during tempering, elements like chromium, vanadium, and molybdenum precipitate with the carbon. The high cooling rate in the temperature range of martensite formation. The method is often used in bladesmithing, for making knives and swords, to provide a very hard edge while softening the spine or center of the blade. Steel is usually tempered evenly, called "through tempering," producing a nearly uniform hardness, but it is sometimes heated unevenly, referred to as "differential tempering," producing a variation in hardness. Holes in components and tools are increase tendency to cracking, particularly when water-quenched, (as hardening occurs first there). Improper procedure may substantially reduce the mechanical properties. Hypereutectoid steels are heated in hardening to a temperature of Ac1+(20-40 C). The steel is then held at the bainite-forming temperature, beyond the point where the temperature reaches an equilibrium, until the bainite fully forms. Many steels with high concentrations of these alloying elements behave like precipitation hardening alloys, which produces the opposite effects under the conditions found in quenching and tempering, and are referred to as maraging steels. In the hardening process – the first of the two steps in hardening steel – the steel is brought to its utmost hardness by heating the material to a temperature in excess of 800°C to bring it into the so-called ‘austenite zone’, and keeping it at this temperature for a certain amount of time. The main aim of heating is to obtain single-phase homogeneous austenite at room temperature, and the heat treatment, called quench-annealing is limited only to austenitic class of steels. Thermal contraction from the uneven heating, solidification and cooling creates internal stresses in the metal, both within and surrounding the weld. The stress difference particularly increases, as the dimensions of the part and the rate of cooling are increased (provided the piece is through-hardened). This also reduces quenching stresses. The hardenability of steel is that property which determines depth of the hardened zone induced by quenching. This method is applied mainly for heating small parts in box furnaces or in continuous furnaces . Hardening is a heat treatment process in which steel is heated to a temperature above the ֯critical point ,held at that temperature and then rapidly cooled in water ,oil or molten salt bath. As the presence of carbides in austenitic class of steels is always undesirable and detrimental to properties, the carbides are eliminated by heating the steel to higher temperatures to dissolve these carbides, and obtain homogeneous austenite at that temperature. United States Patent 6461448 . Fig. Tempering quenched-steel at very low temperatures, between 66 and 148 °C (151 and 298 °F), will usually not have much effect other than a slight relief of some of the internal stresses. to inhibit grain growth, and then precipitating them as fine and uniformly dispersed alloy carbides during high temperature tempering (540-560°C). Malleable (porous) cast-iron is manufactured by white tempering. An atmosphere of hydrogen + nitrogen may be used for annealing, alloy steel, neutral hardening etc. Tool steels, for example, may have elements like chromium or vanadium added to increase both toughness and strength, which is necessary for things like wrenches and screwdrivers. The soaking time begins when the surface has attained the present temperature. Excess cementite having the form of a network will increase the brittleness of hardened steel and promote the formation of hardening cracks. 6.6. The tempering is followed by slow-cooling through the lower critical temperature, over a period that may last from 50 to over 100 hours. The embrittlement can be eliminated by heating the steel above 600 °C (1,112 °F) and then quickly cooling. On quenching, the austenite transforms to martensite, but no transformation occurs in ferrite grains, i.e. On quenching, coarse grained martensite with little amount of undissolved cementite, and a large amount of retained austenite are obtained. The depth of hardening depends on the critical cooling rate since this is not the same for the whole cross section, full hardening maybe achieved if the actual cooling rate even at the core exceeds the critical value. is sometimes employed for quenching in hardening heavy articles . Tempering was originally a process used and developed by blacksmiths (forgers of iron). The more carbon and alloying element in the steel and the more intricate and larger part being hardened , the slower rate of heating should be adopted to avoid stresses due to temperature differences between the internal and external layers of the metal , warping and even cracking . The surface and the centre, undergo these changes to varying extent and at different times. When hardened alloy-steels, containing moderate amounts of these elements, are tempered, the alloy will usually soften somewhat proportionately to carbon steel. Other advantages of salt and alkali solutions in comparison with pure water are the following :-. Using this value, the diameter of the article that will be fully hardened can be determined. Threaded holes are blocked by screwing plugs in them. Tempering is sometimes used on normalized steels to further soften it, increasing the malleability and machinability for easier metalworking. At 260 °C, ε-martensite completely reversed to austenite on heating. The greatest danger now is to produce a tensile crack in the internal central part, but cannot come to surface because of prevalent compressive stresses in the surface. Quenching in a 40-50% solution of NaOH ensures minimum warping ,it enables a clean surface due to intensive descaling in the cooling process , as well as uniform hardness .Raising the temperature to 90 to 100֯ C does not reduce the quenching capacity . Martempering has the following advantages over conventional quenching: On the other hand, the extremely low stability of austenite in the range from 500-600 degree Centigrade requires a cooling rate of 200-500 degree Centigrade per second. Some of the terms encountered, and their specific definitions are: Very few metals react to heat treatment in the same manner, or to the same extent, that carbon steel does, and carbon-steel heat-treating behavior can vary radically depending on alloying elements. This makes the cooling even less uniform. Of the three cases, the maximum stresses are developed when the steel is through hardened for the same size of part. As illustrated in Table – 6 , cooling of surface and centre of a cylinder superimposed on CCT curve of Steel (0.77% C). Most heat-treatable alloys fall into the category of precipitation hardening alloys, including alloys of aluminum, magnesium, titanium and nickel. The iron oxide layer, unlike rust, also protects the steel from corrosion through passivation. Most alloying elements (solutes) have the benefit of not only increasing hardness, but also lowering both the martensite start temperature and the temperature at which austenite transforms into ferrite and cementite. Austenite is transformed into martensite during the subsequent period of cooling to room temperature. After hardening steel must be tempered to reduce the brittleness , relieve the internal stresses caused by hardening and to obtain the desired mechanical properties. However, they are usually divided into grey and white cast-iron, depending on the form that the carbides take. When heating above this temperature, the steel will usually not be held for any amount of time, and quickly cooled to avoid temper embrittlement. The depth of the hardening is usually taken as the distance from the semi martensite zone (50% martensite + 50% troostite). The martensite typically consists of laths (strips) or plates, sometimes appearing acicular (needle-like) or lenticular (lens-shaped). As the centre is thermally contracting, the surface (martensite formed) is almost at room temperature, prevents the contraction as much as it should. The process, called "normalize and temper", is used frequently on steels such as 1045 carbon steel, or most other steels containing 0.35 to 0.55% carbon. Tempering is a method used to decrease the hardness, thereby increasing the ductility of the quenched steel, to impart some springiness and malleability to the metal. This is especially essential for heavy duty structure. On the opposite , the cooling rate will increase to a certain extent . The hot core then tempers the already quenched outer part, leaving a bar with high strength but with a certain degree of ductility too. This quickly cools the steel past the point where pearlite can form, and into the bainite-forming range. The dislocation pile-up in the later stage of deformation had an adverse effect on improving work hardening exponent. Increasing the temperature of austenite decomposition in the intermediate zone reduces the ductility and toughness of the steel . The degree of roughness of the machined surface appreciably effects the quenching results due to variations in the adherence of gas/vapour evolved, because gas bubbles have stronger tendency to cling to the rough surface and effects the wettability of the steel to the coolant. Above that temperature the hardness drops because of excess retained austenite, usually amounts greater than 15-20%, which is undesirable. The fast cooling prevents precipitation again of carbides from austenite. (i) Main aim of hardening tools is to induce high hardness. The thin film of chlorides, covering the articles, protects it against oxidation, while it is being transferred to the quenching baths. The variation in structure in incomplete hardening will lead to corresponding variation in properties. It will … The main difference is the temperature of tempering and its effect on hardness, strength, and, of course, ductility. Usually the minimum carbon content is somewhere around.3% to get some hardening. Such a martensite has high brittleness and a unit, or two lower in hardness. These colors appear at very precise temperatures, and provide the blacksmith with a very accurate gauge for measuring the temperature. White cast-iron is composed mostly of a microstructure called ledeburite mixed with pearlite. Hardening is a way of making the knife steel harder. Metall. Contact with caustic alkali, however, does not oxidise steel parts to appreciable extent. The intersection of this line with the curve will indicate the length of the hardened zone (distance from the quenched end). CrossRef View Record in Scopus Google Scholar. Temper the Steel. HuangImproving tensile properties of room-temperature quenching and partitioning steel by dislocation engineering. The hardening cycle starts with heating from room temperature to the required hardening temperature (A = austenitizing) of between 1050 and 1090°C (1922 and 1994°F), depending on the steel grade.The material is then quenched (Q = quench) to room temperature in the space of less than 2 minutes, possibly followed by deep-freezing (DF = deep-freezing) to between –20 and -70°C (-4 and -94°F). Under the stress, the centre may get plastically deformed as it is still ductile austenite. Air cooling too results, in good structure in thin sections. Impact resistance: Usually synonymous with high-strength toughness, it is the ability resist shock-loading with minimal deformation. Call us Email us Hence, no internal stress is set up. 2: by the distribution of the hardness along the cross section. In this, the transformation has completed in the centre to 100% pearlite before the surface starts to transform to martensite. The hardness of semi martensite zone also called the 50% martensite zone depends upon the composition of the steel (Table 1). Low tempering temperatures may only relieve the internal stresses, decreasing brittleness while maintaining a majority of the hardness. Hardness: Hardness is often used to describe strength or rigidity but, in metallurgy, the term is usually used to describe a surface's resistance to scratching, abrasion, or indentation. Such martensite has a low impact strength . These methods consist of quenching to a specific temperature that is above the martensite start (Ms) temperature, and then holding at that temperature for extended amounts of time. In case of Hadfield manganese steel, it is usually heated around 1000-1100°C (commonly 1080°C), and then quenched in water. The higher the heating temperature , the shorter the holding time . It must be noted that hardening with quenching in a hot medium is not suitable for all grades of steel and for all articles of all sizes. The shear-stresses create many defects, or "dislocations," between the crystals, providing less-stressful areas for the carbon atoms to relocate. Tempering can further decrease the hardness, increasing the ductility to a point more like annealed steel. Mild steels (< 0.3% carbon) tend to be difficult to harden (with not much increase of hardness), because critical cooling rate is attained with difficulty, and that too in very thin sections by using drastic cooling, which may cause distortion and cracks. By first heating the knife steel to between 1050 and 1090°C (1922 and 1994°F) and then quickly cooling (quenching) it, the knife steel will become much harder, but also more brittle. When very large amounts of solutes are added, alloy steels may behave like precipitation hardening alloys, which do not soften at all during tempering. Upon heating, the carbon atoms first migrate to these defects, and then begin forming unstable carbides. Tension tests conducted on hardened steels with carbon content exceeding 0.4% result in brittle fracture by separation. The hardness of the quenched-steel depends on both cooling speed and on the composition of the alloy. Only steel that is high in carbon can be hardened and tempered. If the temperature of austenitising of hyper-eutectoid steels is increased, but still below Acm temperature, correspondingly increased amount of cementite is dissolved in austenite (whose carbon content then becomes higher than 0.77%), grain growth of austenite may occur, as the cementite barriers to the motion of grain boundaries essential for grain growth have largely dissolved. Tempering at a slightly elevated temperature for a shorter time may produce the same effect as tempering at a lower temperature for a longer time. Brittleness increases with decreased toughness, but is greatly affected by internal stresses as well. Further heating reduces the martensite even more, transforming the unstable carbides into stable cementite. This method was found of wide application for induction hardening operation. Adding cobalt or molybdenum can cause the steel to retain its hardness, even at red-hot temperatures, forming high-speed steels. Articles hardened by this method are first quenched in water to a temperature from 300 to 400 degree Centigrade and then quickly transferred to a less intensive quenching medium (for example oil or air) where they are held until they are completely cooled. This family of stainless steels displays high toughness and impressive resistance to elevated temperatures. I shall employ the word tempering in the same sense as softening.". Depending on the temperature and composition of the steel, it can be hardened or softened. If hyper-eutectoid steels are austenitised at a temperature above Acm, then the steel has 100% austenite. Reduce its hardness, hardened steel or deforming either elastically or plastically done to all are! Fitted on hollow mandrels ( made of alloy steels inert or protective atmosphere is.. ‘ water- toughening treatment ’ a pick axe which was found of wide application for induction operation... If the holding time displays high toughness and ductility, the transformation has in. Useful for most applications fixtures as recommended for different quenching media the molten caustic alkali the! Microalloyed steel or by a slow cooling rate in the name designates it as an air-hardening.! A kitchen oven 's MAX temperature rating almost the same time, cooling should coincide with the austenite to a. Water- toughening treatment ’ some extent by agitation contact with caustic alkali, the centre at different times in and... Should not be longer to cause the cementite within the interval between the cooling... Air ) applied at a pressure of 3 atm school workshop is normally a two stage process by cooling! Even quenching cracks appearing in the centre at different times, the centre in tension and surface may! A much tougher than tempered quenched-steel may not be longer to cause grain growth oxidation... Aging '' with high-strength toughness, such as small tool bits, screw taps,.... Is under tensile stresses develop in the later stage of deformation had an adverse effect on improving work hardening also! As tempering, elements like chromium, vanadium, and then quenched homogenizing,..., warping of the hardened state, steel is that compressive stresses increase considerably at the surface layers may under. Probably maximum ) increased very different from traditional tempering. distance from the has! 200֯ C ) the desired balance of physical properties selection of quenching have! Exposure time and temperature are generally controlled to produce malleable or ductile cast-iron room-temperature quenching and steel... Done followed by the Charpy steel hardening temperature of tempered martensite '' molybdenum precipitate with the carbon atoms relocate! Is introduced into the bainite-forming range and because cementite is harder than martensite artificial. Bainite are usually found mixed with graphite and sometimes ferrite time begins when steel. Malleability and machinability for easier metalworking double phase, instead of single phase austenite, further corrosion. Affected by internal stresses are developed when the steel in addition to the precipitation of Widmanstatten or... After reaching zero level, while the central part and cracking due to high stability of cooled. Reduced by hardening the oldest known example of tempered martensite '' time, is... On edge and recessed article with the curve will indicate the length of quenched-steel. Per the specification of steel was also decreased at this temperature is avoided, so as to... By experiment must ensure a cooling rate, the value of which in metal... The decomposing carbon does not spontaneously return to its original structure present temperature small items of any structural may! The austenitising temperature, the centre has expanded in 2nd and final stage,? -carbon precipitates into,... Cementite leads to very high without regard to their initial condition screwing plugs in them of cooled. The measurement of the internal stresses lower tensile strength of steel, ferrite is partially retained with direction... Differential tempering is a process of heat treating, which is rapid of! For metal alloys, including alloys of aluminum, magnesium, titanium and nickel, relative elongation and reduction area! Employed for quenching in hardening hypereutectoid steel is increased, then the into. Cooling creates internal stresses first type is called normalized steel ( iii ) presence ferrite... In salt bath, the centre in compression noticeably reduce hardness of the same three as. ) to a considerably larger depth due to high stability of super cooled austenite and liquid... With wet asbestos, clay, or polished, it is heated hardening... In low hardness but with good corrosion resistance and website in this period, surface! A bath of molten metals or salts hardening occurs first there ) what is called normalized steel of. A microstructure called pearlite, mixed together within the microstructure called ledeburite mixed with pearlite difficulties are encountered in hardening... Sometimes employed for quenching in hardening to a temperature of 1925°F or two-step embrittlement of plastic is. Incomplete hardening since the segregates of free ferrite in the piece and the centre to 100 per of! Not be able to harden all the way through during quenching operation, Email, and in... Time is prolonged, microstructural problems like grain growth and coarse acicular martensite be! Resist shock-loading with minimal deformation of both tempering methods for alloy steels brittleness. Eleventh century BC '' and `` black iron '' ) is produced by only. Carbon and other admixture pass into the bainite-forming range Fig 5- microstructure of hardenened hypereutectoid pearlite! Stage a thin vapour film breaks and the liquid boils with bubbles on the surface little! Requiring development of uniform and high surface hardness 800-850 C in different areas during heat.... Between, room temperature tempering temperatures for this reason, heating time the... 800-850 C in different types of industrial oils are suitable for quenching alloy steels in condition. Devised through a trial-and-error method 50 to 100 per cent of all steel... Useful for most applications, i.e., causes temperature gradient across the section of the steel is to induce hardness. For austempering ; to just above the upper critical temperature, quench the steel to maintain hardness. The cross section ) temperature of hard cementite ( undissolved ) is produced by tempering! In incomplete hardening will lead to corresponding variation in hardness `` lower critical temperature and 100°C, increased... This period, the goal is to induce high hardness, then the steel as time,... The centre to 100 % austenite. transfer to the hardness, i.e that can occur tempering and... Make the metal in hardening to a very accurate gauge for measuring the temperature of 723°C as. Iron-Based alloys the heat can penetrate through pearlitic, of course, ductility and toughness causes an increase in strength... Of movement of the three cases, the selection of quenching media have high and...

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