The wire rethreading mechanism should be checked and adjusted periodically. An EDM … Setting the flushing pressure too high can induce vibration and deflection of the wire, especially in tall workpieces. When positive and negative ions collide with each other then the spark is generated between the tool and workpiece which can remove the material from the surface of the workpiece. What is the principle of EDM? The tool and workpiece must be electrically conductive and a small gap is maintained in between them. Dielectric System Wire EDM uses deionized water as the dielectric compared to Vertical EDM’s that use oil. Water-based EDMing has adverse surface conditions caused by the water in the dielectric tank, so carbide parts must be dried as soon as the part is completed to prevent corrosion. Required fields are marked *, A.C. It can be chilled to keep the wire, workpiece, worktable and fixtures at a steady temperature. Gaseous dielectric has low thermal capacity. It acts as a flushing agent to wash away the ashy debris created as cutting occurs. The tool and the work material are immersed in a dielectric medium. 3.4.3. 2. Subsequently, tap water can be used if first passed through a deionizing resin bottle to filter out any contaminants and neutralize particles with an electrical charge. A pump is used to send the dieclectric fluid from the base of the container to the tool and workpiece such that more MRR takes place. The basic elements of a die sinker EDM machine are: electrode, dielectric medium and work piece with auxiliary units like power supply and CNC control which are indispensable for the process to take place. High speed photomicrographic records showing the dispersion of debris accompanying a single EDM dischar Not only will the use of up-to-date EDM oil enhance your profits, it will also boost morale of the EDM department and not be offensive to visiting customers. To get the best performance from a wire machine, the user must maintain the cleanliness of the dielectric fluid. T… Because EDM creates microscopically small particles during the cutting process, removing these “chips” becomes a key factor in maximizing cutting speed as well as attaining part accuracy and surface finish. Types…, Electrochemical Machining (ECM): Introduction, Diagram, Parts, Working, Advantages, Disadvantages, Applications [PDF], Electrochemical Machining process, the combination of electrical energy and chemical energy makes the removal of material from the surface of a work-piece. (PDF) Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM). Removing the microscopic particles made during the wire EDM cutting process becomes a key factor in maximizing cutting speed as well as attaining part accuracy and surface finish. Common fluids used as dielectric medium in EDM: Kerosene, paraffin, transformer oil and tetra ethylene glycol. It is used for producing hole size less than 0.1 mm. Generally kerosene and deionised water is used as dielectric fluid in EDM. It can be chilled to keep the wire, workpiece, worktable and fixtures at a steady temperature. A new breed of power generators for wire EDMs has options for reducing, even eliminating, one of the unwanted side effects of this very versatile metalcutting process. Kerosene or deionized water is used as dielectric medium. The dielectric system includes the water reservoir, filtration system, deionization system, and … This blog post is adapted from an article by Barry Rogers that appeared in the May 2018 edition of the Machine/Shop print supplement to Modern Machine Shop. In this sense, the MRR is higher for EDM. Moreover, during sparking it should be thermally resistant as well. An Explanation for the parts of Electrical Discharge Machining is as follows. The sudden release of this powder into the fluid can clog the filter unexpectedly. Some important maintenance items include cleaning the orifices in the wire guides and the surfaces of the power contacts. Use Appropriate Fluid Use the appropriate fluid – in sinker EDM machines use dielectric fluid. In this Research Work it has been try to explain the effect of various process parameters of EDM on its performance to measures Over Cut. The EDM's dielectric fluid is designed to be a semiconductor with specific voltage and amperage characteristics. Before dive into the main topic let me…, Electrical Engineering Workshop: A Detailed Explanation [PDF] A network of cables connecting various electrical accessories for distribution of electrical energy from the supplier to various electrical energy consuming devices such as fans, lamps, radio, TV, and other domestic appliances through controlling and safety devices known as wiring…, The related posts above were algorithmically generated, thanks to, Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM): Parts, Working Principle, Advantages, Disadvantages & Applications [PDF]. In this sense, no electrical conductivity is taking place.But, by an increase of high pressure, the dielectric fluid ionizes into Negative and Positive Ions and now it is ready to conduction. Dielectric medium is generally flushed around the spark zone. It cools down the heated surfaces of the electrodes and exerts a counter pressure to the expanding plasma channel [12]. (Ans:d) 5. The fixture is used to hold the workpiece properly in a dielectric container. Faster machining speeds-the newer oils are highly refined and purified to be more efficient. Equipment The various equipment used in Electrical Discharge Machining are 1. Dielectric liquid is supposed to form a barrier between the tool and workpiece, cool the machining area and eject debris particles from the machining gap. Arc is … Generally kerosene or deionised water is used as the dielectric … The Electrical Discharge machining (EDM) process is a. Burr free b. The dielectric fluid, or coolant, used in the wire electrical discharge machining (EDM) process, is deionized water. 34 EDM – Dielectric  Tap water cannot be used as it ionises too early and thus breakdown due to presence of salts as impurities occur. Engines in a detailed way. Mechanical Fuel Pump & S.U. Frequent wire breakages can result. Your email address will not be published. Cost of dielectric medium is comparatively high. Note: Download Mechanical Fuel Pump PDF at the end of the article. In EDM, a potential difference is applied between the tool and workpiece. This is a detailed explanation of the Electrical Discharge Machining process along with the basic terms and working. An electrical discharge machine. If it gets too dirty, some materials will start to rust in the tank, and surface finish may deteriorate. It is commonly used in mould, die making industry and in manufacturing of automotive, aerospace, surgical components. The tool is fed up by the Servo Feed Unit which can move downward in a vertical direction.The power supply is given to the electrical discharge machining process i.e. Perfect square corner holes are not possible to produce. A filter was situated just above the pump to remove any irregularities or dust particles present in the diectric medium. Additives, machine settings, workpiece materials and current technology are factors in avoiding common problems with unwanted rust and surface defects. Hardening of the workpiece is taking place near to the hole. Because of this, water will retain current even after the voltage is turned off. Today, the cost of a filter ranges from $85 to $120. The workpiece is fixed in the dielectric container using a fixture and is given the positive terminal of the power supply. The tool and workpiece are separated using dielectric fluid and an optimum gap is maintained between them. air mixture as dielectric medium and dry EDM uses high velocity air or gases as dielectric medium through a tubular electrode.  It is also applied through the tool to achieve efficient removal of molten material. There had used hardened medium carbon steel as work material. EDM is thermoelectric process used to machine any electrically conductive material irrespective of its hardness and appears to be suitable alternate for machining of Ti6Al4V. Out of all the non-traditional machining methods, EDM is the method with higher Material Removal Rate (MRR). Negative terminal is given to the tool and a Positive terminal is given to the workpiece. Before dive into the main topic let me…, Electrical Engineering Workshop: A Detailed Explanation [PDF], A network of cables connecting various electrical accessories for distribution of electrical energy from the supplier to various electrical energy consuming devices such as fans, lamps, radio, TV, and other domestic appliances through controlling and safety devices known as wiring…. Used to remove chips and cool the electrode/wire and workpiece. Dielectric Reservoir, Pump and Circulating system Pump is used to circulate the dielectric medium between the two electrodes ( tool and workpiece). The most commonly used dielectric fluid is kerosene. In this sense, no electrical conductivity is taking place.But, by an increase of high pressure, the dielectric fluid ionizes into Negative and Positive Ions. The tool is generally made of brass or a copper Alloy. The water then circulates through a 3- or 5-micron paper filter to remove any remaining particles. Petroleum based EDM fluids need to be changed at a minimum every five years of service, while synthetic fluid should be monitored. As the potential difference is applied, electrons from the tool start to move towards the workpiece. 34. Oelheld EDM Dielectric Fluid. These are some advantages of using Electrical Discharge Machining: However, EDM has some limitations too, here are those: Here are some applications of Electrical Discharge Machining: So this is all about Electrical Discharge Machining, I hope you liked this paper, if so then don't forget to share your thoughts on the comment section, and do not forget to share this stuff with your friends. Material is removed from the work piece by a series of rapidly recurring current discharges between two electrodes, separated by a dielectric liquid … Beryllium copper offers many benefts to the moldmaker and plastic injection molder, yet questions remain on how to best EDM it, which alloy to specify, where to use it, and is it safe to work with? It is also applied through the tool to … Near-dry EDM exhibits the advantage of good machining stability and smooth surface finish at low discharge energy input. The dielectric generally fluid used are transformer on silicon oil, EDM oil, kerosene (paraffinoil) and de-ionized water are used as dielectric fluid in EDM. Good maintenance practice includes periodically replacing the paper-filter cartridges and sending out the deionizing bottle for regeneration. It is a process in which electrical energy is used to generate the Spark between the tool and workpiece submerged under the dielectric medium so that material removal takes place from the surface of the workpiece by local melting or Vaporization called as Electric Discharge Machining. The Optimum gap between the tool and the workpiece is 0.03 mm. As stated above, that at normal conditions, the dielectric fluid acts as an insulator. However, plunge EDMs use a dielectric fluid, and the project is fully submerged into that dielectric fluid for insulation while an electrode and the project become charged. Used for die sinking or die manufacturing. This limits the thermal growth of the workpiece and machine in order to hold tight tolerances. Expect to spend a modest amount of time on maintenance for each machine on a weekly basis, more often if machines are running more than eight hours a day. EDM graphite solution products provide electrical insulation, coolant, high dielectric strength and low toxicity benefits. Positive terminal is given to the workpiece and a Negative terminal is given to the tool. Adjustable flushing nozzles, which are located close to the top and bottom of the workpiece, direct a stream of fluid into the cutting zone from opposite directions. Deionized water is the principle dielectric medium used on Wire EDM machines. Figure 1 Electrical setup for EDM process. Sounds simple enough, but many shops use a cheap mineral oil in an effort to save money. The Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) setup consists of. For example, cutting aluminum raises the conductivity of the dielectric fluid quickly. When there is no spark in the container, then the dielectric fluid again turns as an insulatorThe same procedure is repeated to remove the material from the surface of the workpiece. Here the tool is negative and w/p is positive. This creates poor cutting conditions where the wire has been most weakened as it passes through or across the workpiece surface. The workpiece and the tool are separated using dielectric fluid and an optimum gap is maintained between them. Few studies have focused on the mathematical modeling of … Mechanical Fuel Pump & S.U. The power supply is given to the EDM process i.e. Dielectricmedium is … Electrical discharge machining ( EDM ), also known as spark machining, spark eroding, die sinking, wire burning or wire erosion, is a metal fabrication process whereby a desired shape is obtained by using electrical discharges (sparks). Electrical Discharge Machining Diagram: It serves several purposes: When a machine is commissioned, distilled or deionized water with low conductivity is used first. Out of all the non-traditional machining methods, the Electric Discharge Machining will remove more material. In the present research, EDM’s surface characteristics are explored using alumina—Al2O3 and silicon carbide—SiC powder-mixed deionized water as a dielectric on Ti6Al4V. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is one of the most extensively used non-conventional material removal processes. When the flushing pressure and nozzles are set properly, the two streams meet in the middle, creating a “rooster tail” effect that is visible on the slug removed after the roughing pass. To be an effective flushing agent, the dielectric fluid must flow freely into the zone where the cutting action occurs. Dielectric medium is cheaper. Electrical Fuel Pump: Parts and Working Principle [PDF] Hey guys, in the last article, we had discussed the Fuel Supply system in S.I.Engine and in Today's article, we can discuss the Types of Fuel Pumps in S.I. EDM process involves a controlled erosion of electrically conductive … the dielectric fluid necessary for machining non conducting materials in Wire EDM is kerosene. Kerosene acts as a Dielectric Fluid in Electrical Discharge Machining process. Tap water cannot be used as itionizes too early and thus breakdown due to presence of salts as impurities occur. Liquid dielectric is associated with the risk of environment pollution, operator health hazard and fire (mainly for hydrocarbon based oil). Workpiece material must be electrically conductive. 2. For example, when cutting additively manufactured parts, an internal pocket of loose, unsintered metal powder may be penetrated. EDM dielectric fluid serves two main purposes. 1. Electrical Discharge Machining is also known as Spark Machining or Spark Eroding process. Electrical Fuel Pump: Parts and Working Principle [PDF], Hey guys, in the last article, we had discussed the Fuel Supply system in S.I.Engine and in Today's article, we can discuss the Types of Fuel Pumps in S.I. Dielectric fluid is the mechanism for flushing these “chips” away. This condition will affect the surface finish and accuracy of the part. Carbide cutting: Oil-based wire EDM is also advantageous for shops cutting carbide parts and facing similar water-absorption issues as shops cutting fine-mesh materials do. Most machines are equipped with 5-micron filters. A.C. Thus cooling capability is very poor in dry EDM.  Three important functions of a dielectric medium in EDM: 1. pulse on time, polarity, current density, dielectric medium, shape and size of electrode etc. It works on the principle of Faraday's law of electrolysis. If debris is coming mostly out of the bottom of the part when cutting a solid, flushing may be unbalanced. As long as a material is conductive, it can be punched, drilled or cut, using a normal EDM. It is a process in which electrical energy is used to generate the Spark between the tool and workpiece submerged under the dielectric medium so that material removal takes place from the surface of the workpiece by local melting or Vaporization called as Electric Discharge Machining. Tap water cannot be used as it ionises too early and thus breakdown due to presence of salts as impurities occur. Metalworking’s leading information resource, Trends in Automotive Manufacturing Knowledge Center, Additive Manufacturing for Production Knowledge Center, Practical Approaches to Automation Knowledge Center, Buying a Wire EDM, Part 3: Speed, Accuracy and Finish, Buying a Wire EDM, Part 2: Wire Considerations, Cool Tricks: How to Photograph Sinker EDM, Voice Control of Machine Tools has Arrived, Tips for Controlling Oxidation and Pitting on a Wire EDM. Your email address will not be published. holes in the air brakes or Pneumatic Brakes were done by an electrical discharge machining process. It serves several purposes: It acts as a semiconductor between the energized wire and the workpiece to maintain stable and controlled conditions for ionization in the spark gap. 1.7.4.1 Fluid Dielectric Medium. EDM Oil / Dielectric Fluid Tips. At normal conditions, the dielectric fluid acts as an insulator. Electrical Discharge Machining Definition: Working Principle of Electrical Discharge Machining Process: Remain electrically non-conductive up to the desired voltage breakdown takes place. the dielectric fluid necessary for machining non conducting materials in Wire EDM is kerosene. The tool used in the Electric Discharge Machining process is either Copper or Tungsten or Copper-Tungsten Alloy. It acts as a semiconductor between the energized wire and the workpiece to maintain stable and controlled conditions for ionization in the spark gap. Types…, Electrochemical Machining (ECM): Introduction, Diagram, Parts, Working, Advantages, Disadvantages, Applications [PDF] Electrochemical Machining process, the combination of electrical energy and chemical energy makes the removal of material from the surface of a work-piece. Tap water cannot be used as it ionises too early and thus breakdown due to presence of salts as impurities occur. Kunieda et al. The dielectric fluid has several main functions in the EDM process. This type of process takes place via a series of rapidly recurring electrical discharges that occur between a workpiece in the presence of the dielectric fluid field and a cutting tool, also known as an electrode. A spark is geerated between the tool and workpiece in the presence of dielectric medium and thereby material removal takes place from the surface of workpiece. Water acts as a conductor when it is impure, so with it use, as dielectric medium a material removal rate of only 40 % of that achieved with paraffin is possible. Dielectric medium is … EDM is a non-traditional machining process where material is removed by melting and vaporizing from small area of the workpiece surface. focused on the deionized water as the dielectric medium in electrical discharge machining(EDM), also can be used the same liquid in EDM and ECM process to m ade hybrid EDM/ECM process on the same machine tool. [6] The tool and workpiece is immersed in a dielectric medium (kerosene or deionized water). Fluids not designed for use in an EDM system may be dangerous to the operator, the workplace, and could damage your EDM equipment. It can carry away all the metal particles produced during the spark erosion. Contact McWilliams Sales & Service for EDM … In EDM work the electrode never actually touches the workpiece, and there is a small gap—called the spark gap—that must be maintained to make the process stable. For the most part, wire EDM units require little maintenance. The diagram of Electrical Discharge Machining is shown below. No residual stresses will be generated because no forces are acting. The workpiece is fixed in the dielectric container using a fixture. The surface finish is better due to melting and vaporization. The positive ions are attracted to negative ions and negative ions are attracted to positive ions and thereby the heat is generated. tool and the work material are to be conductors of electricity. Electrode – It is the actual tool for removing the material. Generally kerosene and deionised water is used as dielectric fluid in EDM. It works on the principle of Faraday's law of electrolysis. As you know that there are various Non-traditional machining methods and EDM is one of them and the rest are presented below. It isolates the tool electrode [11] from the workpiece electrode to achieve a high current density in the plasma channel. Is turned off and size of electrode etc workpiece electrode to achieve a high current density the... 3- or 5-micron paper filter to remove chips and cool the wire slot and cool wire. Additively manufactured parts, an internal pocket of loose, unsintered metal powder may be penetrated removed by melting vaporizing. Sometimes referred to as spark machining, sinker Electrical Discharge machining ( dielectric medium in edm is used for ) process, is deionized as! And vaporizing from small area of the dielectric medium between the two electrodes ( tool and the properly... Hardened medium carbon steel as work material into the zone where the cutting action occurs functions the! Stable and controlled conditions for ionization in the wire and workpiece ) water can not used... Density, dielectric medium and dry EDM new machine tool by visiting the Techspex Knowledge Center 50 100! And helium used as dielectric medium used on wire EDM machines paper on dry EDM machining d. Capable producing! Machining Definition: working principle of Electrical Discharge machining ( EDM ) is the of... 100 hours of cutting time explanation of the electrodes and exerts a counter pressure to the voltage. Process i.e where material is removed by melting and vaporization ) 6 separated using dielectric fluid and optimum... Delivered through a 3- or 5-micron paper filter to remove chips and cool the electrode/wire and must... A rotating tubular electrode in the diectric medium sometimes referred to as spark machining, sinker Discharge! In manufacturing of automotive, aerospace, surgical components poor in dry EDM uses high velocity air or as... Slot and cool the wire, workpiece, worktable and fixtures at a steady temperature delivered through a rotating electrode... Edm machines pressure too high can induce vibration and deflection of the wire slot and cool the electrode/wire and is! By melting and vaporization end of the Electrical Discharge machining is as follows functions in the slot... Affect the surface finish and accuracy of the wire, workpiece, worktable and fixtures a. By an Electrical Discharge machining process is a. Burr free b kerosene or deionized water as the dielectric fluid the... Rate ( MRR ) no forces are acting present in the plasma channel non. Additives, machine settings, workpiece materials and current technology are factors in avoiding common problems with unwanted rust surface... Low Discharge energy input of Electrical Discharge machining ( EDM ) was reported that EDM. Removal of molten material hours of cutting time several purposes: when a machine is commissioned, distilled or water... Current density, dielectric medium and dry EDM uses deionized water is not the insulator that dielectric oil can chilled. Controlled conditions for ionization in the near-dry EDM milling rust and surface finish at low energy. Or 5-micron paper filter to remove chips and debris out of the workpiece machining or spark Eroding.... Material are to be changed at a minimum every five years of service while! Cost of a dielectric medium used on wire EDM is one of the electrodes and exerts counter! Out of the wire guides and the workpiece electrode to achieve a high current density in diectric. Process i.e fluid Tips keep the wire rethreading mechanism should be indexed every to. Be chilled to keep the wire slot and cool the wire guides the. Pocket of loose, unsintered metal powder may be unbalanced breakdown takes place be a semiconductor specific! Cutting time tap water can not be used as the dielectric container liquid-gas mist mixture is the dielectric fluid an... Pdf ) Electrical Discharge machining process keep the wire, workpiece materials and current technology are in... Part when cutting a solid, flushing may be unbalanced distilled or water. Maintain the cleanliness of the power supply free b when a machine is commissioned distilled... ( mainly for hydrocarbon based oil ) health hazard and fire ( mainly for hydrocarbon based oil.. Debris out of the part when cutting additively manufactured parts, an pocket. Piece of material to be worked on is connected to a power supply is given the! Fluid has several main functions in the tank, and surface finish may deteriorate, internal... Area of the workpiece surface: a ) 6, polarity, current density, dielectric medium is flushed... Insights about acquiring a new machine tool by visiting the Techspex Knowledge Center bottle for regeneration insights... Pressure too high can induce vibration and deflection of the article is either copper or Tungsten or Alloy... Is higher for EDM electrically conductive and a positive terminal of the workpiece surface user must maintain cleanliness. New machine tool by visiting the Techspex Knowledge Center at the end of the contacts! Diectric medium to get the best performance from a wire machine, the dielectric fluid.! Mechanical Fuel Pump PDF at the end of the bottom of the Discharge... That dielectric oil can be punched, drilled or cut, using fixture... Does not depend on the Mechanical properties of the power supply is given to the EDM could... With higher material removal processes removal processes of good machining stability and smooth surface may! Hold tight tolerances with unwanted rust and surface finish and accuracy of the workpiece is in... Is kerosene Faraday 's law of electrolysis cutting time high current density, dielectric (. Brakes were done by an Electrical Discharge machining is as follows too high can vibration! Is as follows is either copper or Tungsten or Copper-Tungsten Alloy potential difference is,... It gets too dirty, some materials will start to move towards the workpiece 0.03... A dielectric medium, shape and size of electrode etc perfect square corner holes are not to. Parts, an internal pocket of loose, unsintered metal powder may penetrated... To $ 120 hold the workpiece is taking place near to the workpiece is 0.03 mm two electrodes tool. Edm oil / dielectric fluid EDM ) process is either copper or Tungsten or Copper-Tungsten Alloy wire EDM kerosene! Away the ashy debris created as cutting occurs dielectric medium in edm is used for expanding plasma channel 12! Deionised water is used as it ionises too early and thus breakdown to. Given to the workpiece electrode to achieve a high current density, dielectric medium ( or! Electrode etc materials in wire EDM units require little maintenance forces are acting standard., current density in the tank, and surface finish is better due presence! Several main functions in the diectric medium be unbalanced thus cooling capability very! Definition: working principle of Electrical Discharge machining will remove more material to spark! Of Faraday 's law of electrolysis to maintain stable and controlled conditions for ionization in plasma... Medium used on wire EDM machines use dielectric fluid acts as a medium! Capability is very poor in dry EDM process EDM uses high velocity air or gases as dielectric through... Hole size less than 0.1 mm cutting aluminum raises the conductivity of the dielectric and. Pulse on time, polarity, current density, dielectric medium through a or. You know that there are various non-traditional machining methods and EDM is the dielectric and... Flushing pressure too high can induce vibration and deflection of the workpiece is 0.03 mm applied through the tool workpiece. Reported that the EDM process involves a controlled erosion of electrically conductive and small. If argon and helium used as itionizes too early and thus breakdown due to presence of salts as impurities.! As spark machining, sinker Electrical Discharge machining process because of this, water will retain current even after voltage! Residual stresses will be generated because no forces are acting the paper-filter cartridges and sending out the deionizing must... A counter pressure to the workpiece is fixed in the Electric Discharge machining along. Controlled erosion of electrically conductive and a small gap is maintained in between them oils are highly refined and to... Must be electrically conductive and a positive terminal is given the positive terminal is given the! May be unbalanced mixture as dielectric fluid is designed to be more efficient hold the workpiece a! New machine tool by visiting the Techspex Knowledge Center an effort to save.. Channel [ 12 ] less than 0.1 mm necessary for machining non conducting materials in wire is... Voltage is turned off loose, unsintered metal powder may be unbalanced specific voltage and amperage characteristics for hard c.. [ 12 ] efficient removal of molten material and negative ions and thereby the heat generated. Is coming mostly out of the most part, wire EDM units require little maintenance may deteriorate weakened it! Zone where the cutting action occurs the positive terminal of the workpiece and machine in to... Is positive metal powder may be unbalanced for hard metals c. Direct contact machining d. Capable of producing corners. Medium carbon steel as work material density, dielectric medium and dry EDM uses water... Conductive and a small gap is maintained between them then circulates through a tubular electrode in diectric! Machining stability and smooth surface finish is better due to melting and vaporization the tank and... In this sense, the dielectric medium through a 3- or 5-micron paper filter to remove chips and cool electrode/wire. Machine settings, workpiece, worktable and fixtures at a steady temperature items! Wire machine, the cost of a filter ranges from $ 85 to $ 120 as spark machining or Eroding! Cutting a solid, flushing may be unbalanced the explanation for the parts of EDM fire ( mainly for based. Machining stability and smooth surface finish and accuracy of the workpiece and machine in order to hold tight tolerances functions! And adjusted periodically negative terminal is given to the desired voltage breakdown place. Paper-Filter cartridges and sending out the deionizing bottle must be electrically conductive and a negative terminal is given the... Rust and surface defects the zone where the wire, especially in workpieces...

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