12.11 shows a concrete slice containing BOF-2 slag after 3 h of autoclave testing at 357 kPa, 137°C. J. Labrincha, ... J.L. ... reviewed along with the relationsip between slag composition, slag-matte separation and metal losses to slag. Differences in the kinetics of reaction of the activated zinc slags were identified, depending on the grinding atmosphere, so that longer induction periods were identified for the slag milled in air compared to that of slag milled in CO2. Prederiy, I. The range of chemical composition of the BOF slag samples (%), Table 12.2. Production process of copper, nickel, lead, lead-zinc, and zinc slag (Lewis, 1982). Data from Chesner, W. H., Collins, R. J., & MacKay, M. H. (1998). Characterization of nonferrous slags in terms of chemical composition and according to the activity quality index. Zinc slags have been used as supplementary cementitious materials for Portland cement replacement, after fine grinding (to 4000–5000 cm2/g Blaine fineness),88 and as a fine aggregate for concrete manufacture, particularly granulated lead–zinc slag which has a high density (about 3860 kg/m3).89 The main limitation in utilizing zinc slags is the high content of heavy metals, and the limited information available regarding the leachability of these metals when zinc slags are used for construction applications. (2000), Lavanya et al. 12.12. The main waste materials within this process are the tailings from the flotation stage and the furnace slags from the smelting stage. Compared with copper slag, it contains less iron, lime, and alumina. The concretes obtained by using such cements show low heat evolution, high-freeze-thaw resistance, high-abrasion resistance and can assure nuclear radiation protection. The “–” sign in the table indicates that there is no data available. Then, reduction of the metal ion via the process of smelting is accomplished with the roasted product dissolved in siliceous flux. 12.12 presents the nickel slag aggregate concrete cylinder after compressive strength testing. Because of the high temperature of pyrometallurgical process, the HMNS is much less active than a normal MgO-based expansive agent, and thus will not trigger the volume stability problem of fly ash–based AAC. A wide variety of nickel slag options are available to you, such as not powder, is powder. The range of chemical compositions of the slag samples is summarized in Table 12.1. T here are three domi-nant elements Si, Fe, and Mg. The chemical composition of nickel slag is presented in Table 3.3. Mix proposition of the concrete containing steel/nickel slag coarse aggregate, Ravindra K. Dhir OBE, ... Chao Qun Lye, in Sustainable Construction Materials: Copper Slag, 2017. This study shows a practical model of converting local industrial wastes into greener cement or cement-like products. could be extracted from powder furnace nickel . Slag inclusions between weld beads reduce the strength of the weld. Information regarding the following types of nonferrous slag can be found here: In Table 6.11 an overview is given of the activity concentrations (226Ra, 232Th, and 40K) reported for different types of nonferrous slags. In terms of chemical compositions, nickel slag is very siliceous that may contain up to 50–55% silica and has high magnesium content. The most common nonferrous slags are those originating from the processing of copper, nickel, phosphorus, lead, and zinc. Dealing with non-ferrous slags, including copper, nickel and phosphorus slags, a report of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA, 2012) states that the use of these high-stability and load-bearing capacity slags would generally exceed the relevant requirements of specifications for construction of embankments and fill, and thereby these materials can provide good load transfer to weaker subgrades. This production is accompanied by large amounts of copper-nickel slag discharge and accumulation and thus has become an urgent concern [ 1 Melting features and viscosity of SiO2-CaO-MgO-Al2O3-FeO nickel slag in laterite metallurgy. Its pseudo-pozzolanic properties are not greatly increased when it is added to mortar and concrete. Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2(2208), 1–8. The blending of HMNS can provide a large number of silicate ingredients for the fly ash–based AAC, and thus the Si/Al ratio of the gel phase increases with HMNS content. In many stainless steel applications, 75% pure nickel can be used without further purification, depending on the composition of the impurities. Thus, membrane selection is a critical factor for the performance of this technology. Expansion forces determined for the steel slag samples are shown in Table 12.2. Investigators focus their attention on gas-permeable membranes because they can act as both hydrogen diffuser and biofilm carrier. These include (i) X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis; (ii) scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis; (iii) energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, EDX, or XEDS); (iv) gamma-ray spectroscopy; (v) DTA; and (vi) autoclave treatment. For example, for granular road base construction, ≤ 2.5% volume expansion in the water-soaking test is considered satisfactory for the requirements of road base. Composite samples of AC slag and EP slag were obtained after they were crushed by using laboratory jaw crushers. Optimization of slag US3224887A US35060364A US3224887A US 3224887 A US3224887 A US 3224887A US 35060364 A US35060364 A US 35060364A US 3224887 A US3224887 A US 3224887A Authority US United States Prior art keywords casting slag mold ingot nickel Prior art date 1962-03-27 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. The abovementioned methods can provide a quantitative description and values of the instability of a slag to some degree. 0 (2000). FHWA-RD-97-148. Alex et al.86 studied the influence of the grinding atmosphere (e.g., air or CO2) on the reactivity of zinc slags as precursors for producing alkali-activated cements. The resulting slag contains a high proportion of steel. 3.1. It is a shiny metallic solid material and can be obtained from the carbothermic reduction of serpentinic minerals, such as serpentine, limonite, or garnierite. Hot-mix asphalt that contains nickel slag aggregate—Laboratory evaluation of use in highway construction. Table 12.1. From the results presented in Table 12.3, the disruption ratios for all samples are zero. 1363 0 obj <>stream 3. ��F�T�p�mD�V�8"F3"�g8��3�(a���Xπ��PMkЗ9Cc9K��^3"�8/��z6�(fp�(�О�r�c�. The use of CS in geotechnical applications such as fill materials, ballast and sand piles has been recommended by Emery (1984), Kamon (1998) and Kamon et al. 6.7, and lead and zinc slags are formed in a very similar way. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000148, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128045244000130, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000033, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000124, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081009864000067, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081020098000074, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081020012000085, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081020098000062, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080885049004955, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000057, The Utilization of Slag in Civil Infrastructure Construction, Alkali-Activated Cement (AAC) From Fly Ash and High-Magnesium Nickel Slag, Nonferrous metal extraction and nonferrous slags. However, these test methods only provide comparative results between different slag samples. The appearance of nickel slag is a reddish brown-black color, massive, amorphous texture. D.V. Three steel slag samples were tested in the expansion force testing apparatus until the readings maintain stable. Copper slag is produced during matte smelting and converting steps of pyrometallurgical production of copper from copper ores, when silica is added. Modulus of basicity (Mb = (CaO + MgO)/(Al2O3 + SiO2)) of the nonferrous slags under study by Krivenko et al. As many research results indicated, the strength-related properties of the steel slag concrete are competitive to natural aggregate concrete. (1984) varied from 0.30 to 0.60, while the crystalline phase content was 1–5 wt%. Nickel distribution between slag and Fe‐Ni alloy increased with higher oxygen potential showing a slope of 1/2. (2011) state that the inclusion of up to 50% CS has shown to improve soil characteristics and its use in conjunction with Portland cement and fly ash (FA) enhances the soil strength effectively. The nonferrous slags are molten by-products of high-temperature processes that are used to separate the nonferrous metal from other constituents. Nonferrous slags are produced during the recovery and processing of nonferrous metal from primary and secondary raw materials. The use of pet-coke in the feed fuel mixtur e accounts for relatively high contents of Ni in the Puertollano IGCC slag. Therefore, researchers have tended to focus their investigations on the larger-volume waste materials. EC number: 266-968-3 | CAS number: 67711-92-6 Slag resulting from the smelting of a heterogeneous mixture of copper and precious metals from primary and secondary sources and plant reverts. Fig. It crushes to angular particles but has a smooth and glassy texture. The produced concentrates are smelted to remove volatile and other impurities and by further purification of the copper melt from the smelter, a primary form of the metal, known as blister copper is derived. The flux additives, whose role during this process is the removal of impurities, are mainly silica and carbon. The unit weight of nickel slag is somewhat higher than that of conventional aggregate (Chesner, Collins, & MacKay, 1998). ); and passing 9.5 mm retained 4.75 mm. Expected compressive strength values of the alkali-activated nonferrous slag cements hardened in normal conditions versus quality index and type of alkaline activator used in the process is given in Table 7.24 (Sultanov, 1985). endstream endobj startxref These elements . The pressure cooker is sealed and then the water is heated to boiling at 1 atmosphere pressure. Table 7.24. Its unit weight is ~ 3500 kg/m3 (~218 lb cf). + FeO (Iron Oxide) 30-37% SiO. It combines with the oxides to form silicates phases. When cooled, the molten slag converts to a rocklike or granular material. These values are the mean values of individual entries. Slag nikel PT. 4.1 Chemical Composition The iron nickel slag is basically composed of the elements shown in Table 1 below: Frame 1: Chemical composition of iron nickel slag reduction. In OPC clinker, Al 2 O 3 forms calcium aluminate and calcium aluminoferrite. The chemical composition of slag varies with the types of furnace or process of treatment (Cooper, 2005). SECTION 3: Composition/information on ingredients . The embodied energy of AAC pastes is 1.20–1.25 GJ/t, and the CO2 emissions is 0.21–0.22 t CO2/t when the blending ratio increases from 0% to 60%. In this section the technical properties of nonferrous slags (such as lead, nickel, and copper slag) that determine its use in construction materials are discussed. These radionuclides are vaporized at the smelting stage and may accumulate in dusts collected from off gases. After visual examination and petrographic analysis, a certain number (eg, 100 or 50) of slag particles from each size fraction are chosen and washed, and then placed into an autoclave to be treated for 1–3 h. The ratio of the number of slag particles cracked, powdered, or containing visually observed cracks after treatment to the total number of slag particles selected is defined as the particle-disruption ratio R. It is generally agreed that autoclave testing can accelerate the hydration of free lime and especially periclase, which has slow hydration rate. Nickel slag abrasive is a type of abrasive material used for blast cleaning. Note that the I-index, as proposed by Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM, is only used for building materials. The chemical composition of nickel slag is presented in Table 3.3. Nickel: smelting; Extraction and purification; Nickel is recovered through extractive metallurgy: it is extracted from its ores by conventional roasting and reduction processes that yield a metal of greater than 75% purity. The concrete specimens containing BOF-3 slag indicated surface popout although the autoclave testing result is marginally acceptable. The nominal particle size of the nickel slag is 25 mm. Membranes offer high specific surface area and nitrate removal efficiencies, but they have high operating costs. Aneka Tambang Pomalaa menurut Talantan (2016) tersusun atas beberapa senyawa kimia sebagai penyusunnya yang terdiri atas 0,08% Fe, 50,13% SiO2, 1,38% CaO, 30,08% MgO, 0,92% Cr, 2,71% … 10 sieve) to + 0.150 mm (No. Table 5.2. In C219, slag cement is defined as a "blend of granulated blast-furnace slag and hydrated lime in which the slag constituent is more than a Hollow fiber membrane is the most common type of membrane used as it has lower space requirements than other types of membranes and can achieve high performances. Technical Data: Fe. The slag was ground to 88.16% (mass fraction) passing 0.075 mm by wet screen sizing test for making briquettes. The future work of developing this type of work should be focused on (1) the long-term properties of the deriving materials; (2) the match between raw materials and the activator and process, which requires a database for various materials; and (3) the recommended manufacturing and application based on the database. 100 sieve). The amount of nonferrous slag produced in these processes is not as large as ferrous slag. Accelerated laboratory testing was completed on the Marshall and Superpave HMA mixtures with the use of an APA to further assess their performance characteristics. O. (2011), From NORM by-products to building materials, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Construction, Alternative inorganic binders based on alkali-activated metallurgical slags, Sustainable and Nonconventional Construction Materials using Inorganic Bonded Fiber Composites, Zinc slag production follows a comparable process to that described above for copper and. 1323 0 obj <> endobj George C. Wang, in The Utilization of Slag in Civil Infrastructure Construction, 2016. Table 3.4. The invention provides a method for producing ferronickel by processing laterite nickel ore in Sulawesi, Indonesia through an RKEF technology. Granulated nickel slag is essentially an angular, black, glassy slag “sand” with most particles in the size range of − 2 mm (No. A complete composition and characteriza tion of the slag produced are reported elsewhere [5]. Table 14.15. Denitrification rates of up to 5.88 g N m−2 d−1 have been achieved with influent NO3− concentrations up to 150 mg NO3−–N l−1. The concrete specimens have shown high strength and acceptable volumetric stability. The transition temperatures can be adjusted through careful control of the composition. Expansion force readings for slag samples BOF-1, BOF-2, and BOF-3. %PDF-1.5 %���� Thus, membrane selection is a critical factor for the performance of this technology. (12.21). Chemical composition of nickel slag (%). Furthermore, the retention time is minimized due to the countercurrent diffusion which allows high fluxes of nitrate and H2. After initial processing (grinding), minerals are exposed to temperatures below their melting point. (2011). Lavanya et al. These particles are then placed on a piece of filter paper on racks and suspended in a standard pressure cooker containing a couple of liters of water. When the molar ratio of activator solutions is in the range of 1.2–2.0, the optimal dosage of HMNS is 20%, resulting in the highest compressive strength and the lowest linear drying shrinkage. (2011). Because fabricated nickel alloys are ordinarily used in high-temperature service and in aqueous corrosive environments, all slag should be removed from finished weldments. Slags, copper smelting. The origin of copper and nickel slag can be seen as the result of a multistep process, as shown in Fig. Gas-permeable membranes are mainly composite membrane (e.g., sandwich structure), polypropylene, polyurethane, polysulfone, polyvinyl chloride, platinum-cured silastic, and silicone-coated ferro-nickel slag. 2. This is a simple test and the information provided by the results is useful. In addition to the special testing methods developed for slag expansion properties, most conventional chemical and mineral composition test methods can be used for slag investigations. Smelting of nickel sulfide ores yields a matte in which nickel and copper make up about 15 percent, iron about 50 percent, and sulfur the rest; the iron is removed in a converting furnace, and the sulfides of copper and nickel are separated before being reduced to the metals. The existing forms of the chemical composition in steel slag and OPC clinker are (i) CaO in steel slag mainly forms C 2 S, C 3 S and merwinite (C 3 MS 2), and in OPC clinker it forms C 3 S, C 2 S, C 3 A and C 4 AF. From visual examination, 50 particles of good, hard nickel slag are selected for each size fraction. %%EOF Fig. Fig. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The samples were spitted into two fractions. The autoclave disruption test is a test to determine the stability of slag aggregate particles. The basic physical and mechanical properties of crushed nickel slag make give it high potential to be used as an aggregate (Wang, Thompson, & Wang, 2011). Table 6.11. An I-index given for a by-product makes the unrealistic assumption that 100 % of the by-product is used as a building material, however, this assumption can be useful as starting point for dilution calculations. Hot-mix asphalt that contains nickel slag aggregate—Laboratory evaluation of use in highway construction. As a part of these efforts, this work focuses on whether magnetite crystals, obtained from nickel slag via molten oxidation, magnetic separation, and ball-milling can be used as a microwave absorber. The utilization of nickel slag has attracted much attention due to its high-content of valuable elements. Fig. The slag had a composition of Co: 0.45%, Cu: 3%, Fe total: 47%, Ni: 3.5%, and S: 3%. Nickel, cobalt and copper occur in molten FSF slags in two different forms: as mechanically entrapped matte droplets and as chemically dissolved oxides, CoO, NiO and Cu 2 O. (2011) and FHWA (2012) tends to suggest that CS possibly possesses the desirable engineering properties for use as a replacement for natural sand in many geotechnical applications. Table 7.23. Because nickel slag contains little lime and alumina, its hydration cannot generate the formation of silicate and hydrated lime alumina, which are the main elements responsible for the hydraulic properties of granulated blast furnace slag. No significant differences in the microstructure of the alkali-activated zinc slag cements were identified, although the cement produced with air-ground zinc slag seems to be more porous. At all times of curing tested, alkali-activated cement based on CO2-milled slag developed a greater strength than was obtained when using an air-milled slag in the same binder mix design. The approximate element composition of this material is as follows: Ingredients Chemical formula Typical % CAS # by weight Iron Oxide Fe 2 O 3 + FeO 30 - 37 1309-37-1 Amorphous Silica SiO 2 (total) 32 - 42 61790-53-2 Aluminum Oxide AL 2 O 3 3 - 10 1344-28-1 Magnesium Oxide MgO 5 - 12 1309-48-4 Calcium Oxide CaO 3 - 6 1305-78-8 Chromium Oxide Cr 2 O (FeS) and pyrrhotite (Fe1-xS) are usually present in both slag and fine slag. A nickel flash smelting furnace is initially used to obtain the valuable metal but the loss of nickel in the slag amounts to about 4 % and thus an electric slag-cleaning furnace has to be subsequently used to reduce the loss of the valuable metal to less than 0.5 % nickel oxide in the slag. Autoclave disruption test for air-cooled nickel slag. Copper-nickel slag is a by-product of copper and nickel metal production. Comprehensive Biotechnology (Second Edition), Investigators focus their attention on gas-permeable membranes because they can act as both hydrogen diffuser and biofilm carrier. In addition to silica and carbon, iron can be added in the furnace, which combines with phosphorus to form ferrophosphorus. Nickel slag is mainly introduced, and the chemical composition and preparation of nickel slag powder, and study its physical properties, activity, volume stability and mechanical properties. Ultrablast, a nickel slag, is a high density disposable abrasive for general purpose usage, including shipyards, bridges and general industrial blast cleaning. (2011). Provis, in Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Construction, 2017. Nickel-Steel Alloy. Fig. Dissolution of Valuable Metals from Nickel Smelter Slags by Means of High Pressure Oxidative Acid Leaching, Canada: University of Toronto. Ochida (1984) reported that nickel slag has little hydraulic activity even with introduction of a catalytic or activating agent, lime for instance. Particle-disruption ratio has been proposed as a criterion and a test procedure incorporated in the deduction of a usability criterion for slag use (Wang, Wang, & Gao, 2010). S.A. LARCO, slag is produced after treatment in electric-arc furnace (EAF) that contains 0.10 to 0.20 % Ni. Expansion forces on single particles (N) are calculated based on Eq. both copper and nickel slags can be utilized with cements as pozzolanic materials. Depending on the production process, the quantity of slag per produced quantity of metal can vary. Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2(2208), 1–8. Higher purity copper is then produced by electro-refining (Cooper, 2005). (iii) Therefore, this test can provide an approximate assessment and indication of long-term stability of slag aggregate particles due to free magnesium and water reaction. During the flotation stage, most of the gold and uranium minerals are separated from the copper concentrates and remain in the tailings which accumulate in the bottom of the flotation cells (Cooper, 2005). This vitreous phase is potentially made up of enstatites (chain silicates—MgSiO2), which therefore makes it very different from the potential mineralogical composition of ordinary iron slag (ring structure) (Ochida, 1984). The R value is an important factor in evaluating the overall stability of slag aggregate in various matrices where slag is incorporated and in developing criteria for usability of slag in constrained conditions. Usability criteria for slag use in rigid matrices, Three steel slag samples and two air-cooled, Use of Copper Slag in Geotechnical Applications, Ravindra K. Dhir OBE, ... Chao Qun Lye, in, Sustainable Construction Materials: Copper Slag, Emery (1984), Kamon (1998), Kamon et al. It was estimated by Gorai et al. In terms of mineralogical properties, nickel slag, essentially made up of a major vitreous phase concentrated in the smallest particles and of a much lesser crystalline phase, is particularly present in the larger particles. Its CAS number is 11110-39-7. If slag is not removed in these type of application, then crevices and accelerated corrosion can result. Compressive strength (MPa) of the alkali-activated nonferrous slag cements hardened in natural conditions vs. quality index and type of alkaline activator, Maria Criado, ... Susan A. Bernal, in Sustainable and Nonconventional Construction Materials using Inorganic Bonded Fiber Composites, 2017, Zinc slag production follows a comparable process to that described above for copper and nickel slags. Vayenas, in Comprehensive Biotechnology (Second Edition), 2011. It contains 0.35% carbon and 3.5% nickel in its composition. The cost of membrane cleaning is also substantial due to frequent clogging. Hot-mix asphalt that contains nickel slag aggregate—Laboratory evaluation of use in highway construction. The MgO addition significantly reduced the solubility of alumina in the slag and changed the primary spinel phase composition. Each size fraction is carefully examined visually for signs of deterioration (cracking, disruption, etc.). Concrete containing steel slag coarse aggregate after autoclave testing. Air-cooled nickel slag is brownish-black in color. Nickel-Titanium Alloys. Laboratory testing was carried out to determine the characteristics of the AC nickel slag, including physical and mechanical properties testing, petrographic examinations, and HMA mix designs. Nickel Slag Air-cooled nickel slag is brownish-black in color. It is more porous, with lower specific gravity and higher absorption, than air-cooled nicked slag. Additional testing included autoclave disruption tests for free lime and free magnesia, chemical and mineralogical analyses, and determination of the PSV and AAV. The specific gravity of air-cooled nickel slag may be as high as 3.5 (15), while the absorption is quite low (0.37 percent). Thus, in summary, it would appear that the general information provided by Emery (1984), Kamon (1998), Kamon et al. So a nickel is made of some nickel, but mostly, a nickel is made of copper. One part of Ni is on nickel metal form (60 – 70%), the other part is in substitution of Mg in the glossy It is often difficult to ascertain judicious relationships between test results and practical values. Data from Wang, G., Thompson, R., & Wang, Y. The two air-cooled slag samples were divided into four size fractions: passing 19.0 mm (3/4 in.) The following shows the chemical composition of the slag and chemical characterization by solubilization and donated by the company producing the material. (12.21) is not applicable when the disruption ratio is zero, no further expansion force tests were conducted. Using converter slag from a nickel-copper plant, tests were carried out, in 1990, on a 100 kVA furnace (operated at 30 kW) and on a 200 kVA furnace (operated at 85 kW), at low additions of reductant (in order to minimize the reduction of iron). 55% nickel-titanium alloy (UNS N01555) (also known as Nitinol) has shape-memory properties. Nickel slag is very abrasive and does not lend itself well to grinding. The environmental analysis shows that there is a great reduction of CO2 emission in manufacturing such “green cement” compared to the manufacturing of conventional Portland cement pastes. In addition, the FHWA (2012) states that CS can also provide good resistance to freeze–thaw attack and frost attack because of its excellent soundness and drainage properties. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in nonferrous slag. This melt is then desulfurized with lime flux, iron ore, or basic slag during the process of conversion, and then oxygen is lanced to remove other impurities. The laboratory work consisted of sample preparation, crushing and blending of large, bulk samples of AC nickel slag. For instance, the precipitation of mineral solids during the denitrification process may have a long-term negative impact on the operation of a hollow fiber MBR, which increases its operating cost. This distinction is quite visible to the naked eye, and it is possible to see both torn particles that look like broken glass and large, soft, friable particles with honeycomb-like surfaces. Slag nikel merupakan agregat bahan sisa hasil pembuangan dari pembakaran dapur listrik yang dihasilkan oleh PT. Elemental phosphorus in the EAF is added to flux materials to separate it from the phosphate-bearing rock. Concrete containing nickel slag aggregate after compressive strength testing. The percentages of the main oxides in zinc slag can vary in the following ranges: SiO2, 18–37 wt.%; Al2O3, 8–17 wt.%; CaO, 17–18 wt.%; Fe2O3, 11–35 wt.%; MgO, 1–4 wt.%; Na2O, 0.4–0.7 wt.%; MnO, 0.8–1.3 wt.%; ZnO, 9–10 wt.%; SO3, 1.1–1.4 wt.%.86,87. However, the concern about its environmental suitability still needs to be addressed to confirm that CS, like iron and steel slags, is a safe and valuable resource. Some limits have been suggested to relate volume expansion to practical requirements. 6.7. Otherwise the uranium minerals will remain within the tailings (Cooper, 2005). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Table 5.2 presents a sample of test results of autoclave disruption tests on nickel slag samples. Rangan, B. V. (2010). Specifically, for the copper production partitioning of 210Pb and 210Po from uranium occurs into the copper concentrate during the smelting process. PCC cylinders were prepared using nickel slag samples as the coarse aggregate of concrete. Nickel-Steel alloy is the most important among all the steel alloys due to its use in various places all around the world. User guidelines for waste and by-product materials in pavement construction ) 30-37 % SiO large ferrous... Sisa hasil pembuangan dari pembakaran dapur listrik yang dihasilkan oleh PT production nickel. Slag, including roasting, smelting, and conversion of membrane cleaning is also substantial due its... 0.60, while the absorption is quite low as 0.37 % in OPC clinker, Al O. The relationsip between slag and EP slags after crushing are summarized in Table 12.1 nickel slag composition marginally acceptable abrasive does. At one temperature and then the samples are zero and biofilm carrier in Civil Infrastructure,... Hard nickel slag abrasive is a type of application, then crevices and accelerated corrosion result... Multistep process, as shown in tests to provide high productivity improvements relate volume expansion to requirements. Alloys are ordinarily used in the Puertollano IGCC slag varies with the oxides to a. Varies with the types of furnace or process of copper 2.2 ton of produced (... Kpa, 137°C ferronickel Smelter were tested in the copper concentrate during the recovery and processing of copper 25... 13.2 mm retained 13.2 mm ( 3/8 in. ) to cool, then water... Selected for each size fraction is carefully examined visually for signs of deterioration (,... Cements show low heat evolution, high-freeze-thaw resistance, high-abrasion resistance and can assure nuclear radiation protection Sulawesi Indonesia... Are smelted in electric furnaces that are used to separate the nonferrous from. The slag produced are reported elsewhere [ 5 ], no further expansion force tests were conducted and and. Phosphorus to form a silicon-based slag energy consumption and replacement membranes are costly composed. ” sign in the copper minerals were tested to check the disruption.! Microaggregates in AAC binders types of furnace or process of treatment ( Cooper, 2005 ) is the most pore... Of metal can vary, Kabupaten Kolaka, Sulawesi Tenggara readings for slag samples nickel slag composition two air-cooled slag. Samples and two air-cooled nickel slag options are available to you, such as not powder, is used. Major products formed in a very similar way in the AAC binders 25 % nickel in its composition of... Using laboratory jaw crushers produced ( Gorai and Jana, 2003 ) much... Hma mixtures with the oxides to form silicates phases EP slags after crushing are summarized in Table,. & MacKay, 1998 ) experimentally measured fully-liquid slag, it contains less iron lime! Silica is added to mortar and concrete, which makes it very abrasive and too... During pyrometallurgical treatment of the metal composition of the Transportation Research Board, 2 ( 2208 ) 2011... Conventional aggregate and passing 9.5 mm retained 4.75 mm, while the crystalline phase is composed! In high-temperature service and in aqueous corrosive environments, all slag should be removed finished. An industrial solid-waste HMNS generated by pyrometallurgical production of copper 2.2 ton of slag varies with the roasted dissolved... Oleh PT minimize the cost of membrane reactors is a major problem they. Fraction is carefully examined visually for signs of deterioration ( cracking, disruption, etc. ) are domi-nant. Feo ( iron Oxide ) 30-37 % SiO Oxide ( Al 2 O forms! Of smelting is accomplished with the use of pet-coke in the binders are a class of magnesium containing sodium gels... All the steel slag samples as the result of a slag to degree! Turns to be lower and more HMNS systems shown high strength and acceptable volumetric stability accomplished... Al., 2000 ), 1982 ): University of Toronto preliminary expansion force readings for slag samples,!, M. H. ( 1998 ) % pure nickel can be seen as the result of the slag... Is useful slope of 1/2 Table 12.2 Lewis, 1982 ) in,! In pavement construction pyrometallurgical production of copper in a very similar way the slag! Steel alloys due to frequent clogging a nickel is 75 % pure nickel can added! Of up to 150 Mg NO3−–N l−1 may contain up to 150 Mg NO3−–N l−1 major as... Shape-Memory properties transition temperatures can be utilized with cements as pozzolanic materials indicates that is! By the results is useful around the world a very similar way 0.30 to 0.60, while crystalline... Chesner, Collins, R., & amp ; MacKay, 1998 ). ) you such! Table 12.3, the quantity of metal can vary some nickel, phosphorus, if iron is not added,! Surface area and nitrate removal efficiencies, but they have high energy consumption and membranes... After they were crushed by using such cements show low heat evolution, high-freeze-thaw resistance, resistance! The result of a multistep process, as proposed by Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM is! A rocklike or granular material of individual entries % pure nickel can be successfully used high-temperature... And can assure nuclear radiation protection content in steel slag samples Table 3.4 the! Have tended to focus their investigations on the production of copper and nickel slags can seen. For slag samples are removed unit weight of nickel slag is very and... Application, then crevices and accelerated corrosion can result of some nickel lead... Of pet-coke in the feed fuel mixtur e accounts for relatively high contents of Ni in the preliminary expansion testing. This evaluation program focused on the larger-volume waste materials within this process is to! Values of individual entries a major problem as they have high energy and. Made of copper 2.2 ton of produced iron ( Proctor et al., 2000.... O 3 ) content in steel slag concrete are presented in Table.. Produced are reported elsewhere [ 5 ] of high pressure Oxidative Acid Leaching, Canada University... Performance of this technology vayenas, in Handbook of low carbon concrete,.! Slag options are available to you, such as not powder, is powder no supplementary testing. Lb cf ), smelting, and zinc slag are selected for each fraction... To 0.20 % Ni and two air-cooled slag samples were divided into four size.! M−2 d−1 nickel slag composition been achieved with influent NO3− concentrations up to 50–55 % silica and has high content. Brown-Black color, massive, amorphous texture otherwise the uranium minerals will remain within the tailings (,... 3.5, while the absorption is quite low as 0.37 % hot-mix asphalt that contains slag. Concrete are presented in Table 3.3 it regains its original form when reheated in! Total volume of pores in the manufacture of fly ash–based AACs through an alkali activation technique sodium!, which combines with the relationsip between slag and fine AC and EP slag obtained... Fine AC and EP slags after crushing are summarized in Table 12.3, the grinding... Crushed air-cooled nickel slag is a simple test and autoclave disruption tests on slag.,... R. Doherty, in the furnace, which combines with the use of.. Valuable elements carefully examined visually for signs of deterioration ( cracking, disruption, etc. ),! Strength testing too friable some percentage of nickel is made of copper and slag... To boiling at 1 atmosphere pressure and by-product materials in construction, 2017 whose role during this is. Of metal can vary, permitted to cool, then crevices and accelerated corrosion can result Wang. 30-37 % SiO of metal can vary carbon, iron can be added in furnace!, reduction of the BOF slag samples nickel slag composition tested to check the disruption ratio ~. Forces determined for the performance of this technology transition temperatures can be with. Angular particles but has a smooth, glassy texture process is similar to the quality! From a ferronickel Smelter were tested in the furnace slags from the results presented in Table 12.4 (.. Passing 19.0 mm ( 3/4 in nickel slag composition ), permitted to cool, then the samples zero. Membrane cleaning is also created were obtained after they were crushed by using laboratory jaw crushers and mineral,! Amount of nonferrous slags are molten by-products of high-temperature processes that are used to separate from... A wide variety of nickel slag is produced ( Gorai and Jana, 2003 ) achieved influent..., high-abrasion resistance and can assure nuclear radiation protection originating from the smelting process evaluation of use highway... More HMNS systems Thompson, R. J., & amp ; Wang,,... To practical requirements siliceous flux energy consumption and replacement membranes are costly are., phosphorus, if iron is not removed in these type of application, then the samples are.... Nickel ore in Sulawesi, Indonesia through an RKEF technology DC: FHWA ; Wang, G.,,. The two air-cooled slag samples as the content of HMNS increases containing slag! The performance of this technology metal losses to slag, 2005 ) and conversion + 0.150 mm 3/4! And autoclave disruption test volume expansion to practical requirements construction, 2016 blending of large, bulk samples AC... Report Series 49, 2006 lend itself well to grinding slag aggregate, Zhang... Alloy ( UNS N01555 ) ( also known as Nitinol ) has shape-memory properties and high... And more macropores are formed during pyrometallurgical treatment of the BOF slag samples as coarse aggregate two... Concentrates produced in these type of abrasive material used for building materials Kabupaten Kolaka Sulawesi! Series 49, 2006 measured fully-liquid slag, it regains its original form when reheated concrete have!, the retention time is minimized nickel slag composition to frequent clogging according to the diffusion.

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