With the presence of the fungus across both Asia and North America, the American chestnut is no longer planted and usually never seen as a stately specimen tree. It is grown as … When cultivated close to other species of chestnut (including Japanese chestnut, C. crenata; American chestnut, C. dentata; and sweet chestnut, C. sativa), Chinese chestnut readily cross-pollinates with them to form hybrids. American Chestnut Tree (Castanea dentate) American chestnut trees are large deciduous trees that … The tree is hard to transplant, perhaps due to a coarse root system. The Chinese Chestnut belongs to the Fagaceae family and is a species found in China, Taiwan and Korea. The disease was first noticed on a tree in the Brooklyn Zoo in 1904 and quickly spread all out of control, ravaging American chestnuts. Naturally an understory tree[citation needed], Chinese chestnut has been cultivated in East Asia for millennia and its exact original range cannot be determined. The leaves are alternate, simple, 10–22 cm long and 4.5–8 cm broad, with a toothed margin. yunnanensis Franchet.[1]. American Nut —— Chinese Nut Following devastation of the American Chestnut by the chestnut blight, the Chinese Chestnut has been used as a substitute for our native tree. The nuts are sweet, and considered by some to have the best taste of any chestnut,[7] though others state they are not as good as the American chestnut. It usually branches close to the ground making it a good candidate for a specimen or as a tree to climb. TACF National Office 50 North Merrimon Avenue, Suite 115, Asheville, NC 28804, Phone: 828-281-0047 Fax: 828-253-5373 chestnut@acf.org. Notice the leaf shape and color is hard to distinguish for the F1 hybrid. It is a blight-resistant tree that is rapidly gaining popularity across the globe by virtue of its highly useful features. The scientific name of the nut is Castanea mollissima. Except … The leaves of chestnut trees are lanceolate and ovate. The leaf is spade shaped, with a rounded bottom and is characteristically wider in the other third of the leaf. Chinese chestnut trees grow leaves with fine, fuzzy hairs on the lower surface. Learn how to identify American chestnuts and send us a sample to support our research. Castanea Castanea. In the 1890s, Chinese and Japanese chestnuts were imported to the United States with the intention of utilizing them as orchard trees due to their small, compact size compared to the towering American chestnut. Chinese Chestnut Burs: A sparse mass of short, thick spines Spines are 1 to 2 cm long, 1 mm thick Up to 3 nuts per bur American Leaf (left): Leaf is long in relation to its width Large, prominent teeth on edge; bristle at the end of each tooth curves inward Base of leaf blade tapers sharply Leaf is very thin and papery Chinese Leaf (right): The flowers are produced in catkins 4–20 cm long, with the female flowers at the base of the catkin and males on the rest. Its flowers are pungent, and its nuts quite sweet. Chinese chestnut, Chinese hairy chestnut, châtaignier de Chine, chinesische Kastanie, shinaguri, Rōmaji castaño chino are common names of Chinese chestnut. It is glossy and heavier than American leaves. Many cultivars are very cold tolerant. The chestnut tree produces clusters of edible nuts. The sweet-tasting nuts are often roasted for holiday eating and have been made famous in turkey stuffing recipes across the country. Chinese chestnut reaches a height and spread of about 40 feet in a sunny, open exposure and a well-drained soil. The species prefers full sun and acidic, loamy soil, and has a medium growth rate. The leaves are glossy and dark green. Flowers of the Chinese Chestnut are particularly foul smelling, and reportedly can spoil a late-spring barbecue. Names of Sweet Chestnut in various languages of the world are also given. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Sweet Chestnut. [3], Chinese chestnuts have evolved over a long period of time in coexistence with the bark fungal disease chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica, formerly Endothia parasitica), and have evolved a very successful resistance to the blight, probably more so than any other species of chestnut, so that, although it is not immune, it typically sustains no more than minor damage when infected. Chinese Chestnut. European chestnut (Castanea sativa) is also susceptible to these chestnut diseases, but Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) is resistant. Horse chestnut and buckeyes have a shiny pod with fewer, bumpy spikes. The results unfortunately were disastrous as the imported Asian species introduced blight to which C. dentata lacked any resistance. formosana Hayata; C. sativa var. The Chinese Chestnut is a beautiful and ornamental large shade tree to plant in your lawn, or with other trees. [1][2], Synonyms: Castanea bungeana Blume; C. duclouxii Dode; C. fargesii Dode; C. formosana (Hayata) Hayata; C. hupehensis Dode; C. mollissima var. The Chinese chestnut tree grows alternating, oblong leaves that have sharp, pointed teeth around the edges. Castanea mollissima (Chinese: 板栗; pinyin: bǎnlì), also known as the Chinese chestnut, is a member of the family Fagaceae, and a species of chestnut native to China, Taiwan, and Korea. The Chinese Chestnut tree nuts are large and sweet, though not as sweet as an American Chestnut. We purchased Chinese Chestnut trees from Miller's Nursury approximately 6 - 10 years ago. Chestnut blight, plant disease caused by the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica (formerly known as Endothia parasitica).Accidentally imported from Asia, the disease was first observed in 1904 in the New York Zoological Gardens.By 1925 it had decimated the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) population in an area extending over 1,600 km (1,000 miles) north, south, and west of its entry point. Horse chestnut leaves are much larger than buckeyes or American chestnuts. They can usually be recognized by their thick, leathery leaves that are densely hairy on the lower surface. Chinese chestnut trees grow leaves with fine, fuzzy hairs on the lower surface. pendula X. Y. Zhou & Z. D. Zhou; C. sativa Miller var. Chinese chestnut trees range in resistance to chestnut blight from very susceptible (as susceptible as American chestnut trees) to very resistant. 3. mollissima (Blume) Pampanini; C. vulgaris Lamarck var. The leaves are dark green with a toothed margin and 3-5″ long. This is a deciduous tree, so it loses the leaves in the winter, but makes up for it with a striking bare silhouette. The fruit is a densely spiny cupule 4–8 cm diameter, containing two or three glossy brown nuts; these are 2–3 cm diameter on wild trees. An active program has been pursued in North America to cross-breed the Chinese and American chestnuts to try to maximize various desirable traits of the American chestnut, such as larger stature, larger leaf size, larger nut size, and greater nut sweetness, while also isolating and carrying the blight resistance from the Chinese chestnut.[5]. SA is Southern American Pure Chestnut, C is Chinese, and F1 is a first generation hybrid between the American and Chinese Chestnut. This tree is very blight resistant, with a low branching, wide spreading growth habit. List of various diseases cured by Sweet Chestnut. Chinese chestnut has a pleasingly round crown and is often selected as a hardy street tree. Long-stalked, deciduous, palmate green leaves … Asian chestnuts include Castanea mollissima (Chinese chestnut), Castanea henryi (Chinese chinkapin, also called Henry's chestnut – China), Castanea seguinii (also called Seguin's chestnut – China) and Castanea crenata (Japanese chestnut, Korean chestnut). It is caused by sun reflecting off of snow in winter and heating the bark on the south side of the tree. The Chinese species is not used as a residential or street tree because of the smell of the flowers and the fruit, nut and leaf litter shed annually. Some individuals are quite susceptible while others are essentially immune to the disease. Smooth and chestnut-brown in color when young, later shallowly fissured into flat ridges. In the fall, neighbors will slow down to check out the shining yellow and gold leaves. Mature leaves are light green and paper-thin, and droop down from the twigs. Most of established Chestnuts are Chinese, and they have a very distinctive apple tree shape, rounded with multi-stemmed trunk (see next column). Its medium to dark green, oblong, linear leaves are 3 to 6 inches long. American Leaf (left): Leaf is long in relation to its width Large, prominent teeth on edge; bristle at the end of each tooth curves inward Base of leaf blade tapers sharply Leaf is very thin and papery, Chinese Leaf (right): Leaf is oval-shaped Teeth are smaller Base of leaf blade is rounded Leaf is thick and waxy-feeling, American Leaf (left): Elongated leaf Large, prominent teeth on edge; bristle on teeth curves inward Blade tapers sharply to meet stem at base of leaf blade Light green underside on leaves exposed to the sun, Chinese Leaf (right): Oval-shaped leaf Small teeth on edge Base of leaf blade rounded Underside of sun leaves look whitish because of many hairs, Pointed buds that angle away from the stem Stems smooth and hairless Stem color reddish brown to dark green Small but numerous lenticels on stem, Rounded buds that hug the stem Hairy stems and hairy leaf veins Stem color tan to pea-green Large lenticels (bumps) on stem, Slender Angle sharply out from stem Usually fall off in June, Broad Cover the buds Remain on the stem through September, American Chestnut Burs: A dense mass of long, slender spines Spines are 2 to 3 cm long, 0.5 mm thick Up to 3 nuts per bur, Chinese Chestnut Burs: A sparse mass of short, thick spines Spines are 1 to 2 cm long, 1 mm thick Up to 3 nuts per bur, American Chestnuts: Nuts are relatively small, 1/2 to 1 inch in diameter Tips of American chestnuts are pointed Nuts are hairy over 1/3 to 2/3 of length from pointed end Vascular bundles in a sunburst pattern on hilum end 2 to 3 nuts in each bur, Chinese Chestnuts: Nuts are relatively large, 3/4 to 2 inches in diameter Tips of Chinese chestnuts are rounded Only the tips of the nuts are hairy Vascular bundles in a diffuse pattern on hilum end 2 to 3 nuts in each bur. In Vietnam, Chinese chestnut (Vietnamese language: hạt dẻ, Tày language: mác lịch) which are grown in Trùng Khánh district, Cao Bằng province have highest quality with 3.3-5.4% glucose, 43.36- 46.47% glucid, 1.16 – 2% lipid, 3.12 – 3.62% protein analyzed by Vietnam National Vegetable and Fruit Researching Institution in 1999. It is a medium sized, low-branched, deciduous tree that typically grows 40’ (less frequently to 60’) tall with an open rounded crown. It is hardy from zone 4, and resistant to heat and humidity. The scientific name mollissima derives from the softly downy shoots and young leaves. (We have also purchased replacement Chinese Chestnut trees from you this spring to replace what we have lost). The Chinese Chestnut is a wonderful large shade tree that is often planted alone for the beauty and shade it provides. The nuts are edible, and the tree is widely cultivated in eastern Asia; over 300 cultivars have been selected for nut production, subdivided into five major regional groups: Northern, Yangtze River Valley, Sichuan and Guizhou, Southern, and Southwestern. In the provinces of Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, and Zhejiang, and also to Taiwan and Korea. Castanea mollissima (Chinese Chestnut) is a medium sized deciduous tree with a short trunk and an open rounded crown adorned with wide-spreading branches. The edible nuts develop in sharp, spiny husks. The pod of the American chestnut has a thicker growth of hairlike spikes on the outside. in diameter. [1][2], When cultivated close to other species of chestnut (including Japanese chestnut, C. crenata; American chestnut, C. dentata; and sweet chestnut, C. sativa), Chinese chestnut readily cross-pollinates with them to form hybrids. Chinese Chestnut Castanea mollissima The Chinese Chestnut is a medium sized tree that produces a sweet tasting chestnut for consumption. The tree produces delicious and edible nuts called chestnuts or Chinese chestnuts. Leaves: American chestnut leaves are elongated with prominent teeth Chinese chestnut leaves are oval shaped with small teeth Nuts: American chestnuts are small, between 1/2 to 1 inch in diameter, with point tips and hair over 1/3 t… Chestnut trees (Castanea) are deciduous trees in the beech family (Fagaceae). But this is more than a nut tree. It grows close to sea level in the north of its range, and at altitudes of up to 2,800 m in the south of the range. Burs are at the end of the branch with up to 3 nuts per bur. Within 30 years, there were very few left in their native range. Chestnuts produce a better crop when subjected to chill temperatures during the dormant period. Here are all three types of leaves next to each other. Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) is a coarse textured tree of the Fagaceae family native to China, Korea and Taiwan. The Chinese chestnut is used as a substitute for the American chestnut, becoming a shade tree for large landscapes. Chinese chestnut is an exotic species that is somewhat resistent to the chestnut blight that has destroyed New England's native chestnut, Castanea dentata. Chestnut trees are of moderate growth rate (for the Chinese chestnut tree) to fast-growing for American and European species. Green leaves turn to yellow, gold and brown in autumn. It is native to forests, thickets, slopes, ravines and roadsides in northern China. As the American chestnut struggles with disease, the blight-resistant Chinese chestnut is quick gaining popularity. In fall the leaves turn yellow/copper. [6] Some cultivars, such as 'Kuling', 'Meiling', and 'Nanking', have large nuts up to 4 cm diameter. Chinese Leaf (right): Oval-shaped leaf Small teeth on edge Base of leaf blade rounded Underside of sun leaves look whitish because of many hairs ... Chinese Chestnut Burs: A sparse mass of short, thick spines Spines are 1 to 2 cm long, 1 mm thick Up to 3 nuts per bur . This non-native species produces spikes of creamy white flowers in summer. Chestnuts grow on the trees inside spikey burs, each about an inch (2.5 cm.) Wildlife: Deer, turkey, squirrels and many other wildlife enjoy eating chinese chestnuts. Noteworthy Characteristics Castanea mollissima, commonly called Chinese chestnut, is native to China and possibly Korea. How Sweet Chestnut is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. Fragrant, creamy white and yellow-hued blooms cover the tree for a brief time in late spring. Of the 6-8 trees we purchased - three have survived and two finally developed burrs this year. The four major species of chestnut trees are the American chestnuts, European chestnuts, Japanese chestnuts and Chinese chestnuts. Buckeye trees have fans of five leaves while American and horse chestnut leaves are spans of six or seven. [4] Japanese chestnut is also comparatively resistant to blight, with European chestnut somewhat less so. Chinese chestnut Chinese chestnut is resistant to chestnut blight which has almost wiped out the American chestnut. Castanea mollissima (Chinese chestnut) Chinese chestnut trees range in resistance to chestnut blight from very susceptible (as susceptible as American chestnut trees) to … Sunscald – One of the chestnut tree problems that can look like blight is called sunscald. Chinese is gray-brown to brown, rapidly becoming furrowed, but without distinguishable patterns. Chinese chestnut trees (Castanea mollissima) are medium tall trees with spreading branches. For the other similarly named chestnut species, see, Dr. Greg Miller, Empire Chestnut Company, FAQ, http://www.empirechestnut.com/faqpests.htm, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Castanea_mollissima&oldid=948724574, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 April 2020, at 18:03. Subtle but radiant fall leaves follow in autumn to accompany the sweet chestnuts. It's important to realize, though, that Chinese chestnut trees vary considerably in blight resistance. According to the American Chestnut Foundation, there are several ways in which to identify whether a tree is an American chestnut or a Chinese chestnut, although this does begin to prove more difficult with later generation hybrids, as they more closely resemble true Americans. Chestnut tree leaves are simple and ovate, and the flowers bloom in spring and summer. Besides that, the Dandong chestnut (belonging to the Japanese chestnut – Castanea crenata) is a major cultivar in Liaoning Province. Frosts and snowfalls are beneficial rather than harmful to the trees. However, it is valuable in difficult, urban locations where a shade tree is needed to grow in a dr… Aesculus chinensis, commonly called Chinese horse chestnut or Chinese buckeye, is a rounded deciduous tree that typically grows to 30-40' (less frequently to 70') tall. It has interesting scented flowers in late spring, burr-like fruits containing two or three large edible chestnuts, and beautiful golden-yellow fall leaves. 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